E46 series BMW 3
since 1998 of release
Repair and car operation
E46 series BMW 3
- BMW 3 cars (Е46)
Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, tool and workplace equipment
Poddomkrachivaniye and towage
Engine start from the auxiliary power supply
Checks of readiness of the car to operation
Automobile himikaliya, oils and greasings
Diagnostics of malfunctions
Governing bodies and operation receptions
Governing bodies and devices
Keys, uniform lock and anticreeping system
The hatch with elevating and movable крышкой*
Adjustment of provision of a steering wheel
Lock of ignition and engine start
Manual box of gear shifting (RKPP)
Automatic transmission (AT) *
Lever of the switch of indexes of turn / light signal
Screen wipers and stekloomyvatel
Heater of back glass
Tempostat (automatic equipment of maintenance of the set speed) *
The alarm system of emergency rapprochement at a parking (PDC) *
System of automatic stabilization of stability with a regulator of a torque of the ASC+T/engine System of dynamic control of stability of DSC*
The monitoring system of pressure of air in tires (RDC) *
Lighting and light devices
Heater, ventilation and conditioner of air of salon
Features of driving of the car
Anti-blocking system of brakes (ABS)
Readjustment of headlights
Unlocking of a cover of the refueling hatch manually
Drive of an elevating and movable cover of the hatch вручную*
+ Current leaving and service
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ Power supply systems, injection and release
+ engine Electric equipment
+ RKPP and transmission line
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
+ electric equipment Schemes
Checks of readiness of the car to operationIntroduction
In the Section everything which are subject to check are listed, knots and systems and are offered ways of independent check of their condition and functioning. On the basis of the analysis of results of such checks it is possible to estimate readiness of the car for operation and checkup passing. Naturally, independently carried out checks cannot be compared on accuracy of measurements with professional, in view of lack of the corresponding qualification of the operator and inaccessibility of the special diagnostic equipment. If during carrying out independent checks need of performance of repair or replacement any of components is revealed, address to appropriate sections of the corresponding Heads of the Management for the purpose of obtaining fuller information.
In most cases performance of the forthcoming checks demands participation of the assistant in them.
The checks made from a driver's place
Parking (manual) brake
Check of functioning of the parking brake is made by complete raising of the lever of its management. Thus it is necessary to make sure that the size of a course of the lever (number of clicks of a ratchet), demanded for emergence of feeling of the full resistance caused by raising of the brake mechanism, is not excessive. If this requirement is not carried out, it is necessary to check serviceability of brake mechanisms of back wheels of the car and/or correctness of adjustment of cables of a drive of the parking brake.
Having completely cocked the parking brake, shake the lever of its management here and there (knock on it from sides) - thus the brake should not be released, - wear of a ratchet or a lever doggie otherwise takes place. Release the parking brake and shake the lever here and there for identification of signs of wear of the axial bearing. Check reliability of fastening of the lever and make sure of lack of traces of corrosion of a bearing element of a body in radius of 30 cm round a lever support. If the condition of fixture of the lever does not give in to check from car salon, estimate it later during the checks made under the car.
Make sure that the brake pedal during the squeezing and an otpuskaniye does not publish any sounds, does not show obvious signs of excessive wear of axial plugs, also check a condition of an overlay of a pedal. Make sure of lack of signs of leakages of brake liquid on a pedal, a floor or a rug surface round a pedal, speaking about violation of tightness of sealing cuffs of the main brake cylinder.
Squeeze out a pedal at first slowly, and then quickly, achieving possibility of keeping of steady pressure. Create pressure and make sure that the pedal does not start then to fail slowly to a floor that again would point to problems with the main brake cylinder. Release a pedal, wait some seconds, then again squeeze out it till emergence of firm resistance. Make sure that resistance starts to arise already on the top site of a course of a pedal. If for resistance emergence the pedal is required to be drowned almost to a floor, it indicates violation of adjustment of brake mechanisms. If firm resistance to squeezing of a pedal does not arise at all, i.e. softness of a course of a pedal takes place, it speaks about hit in hydraulic system of air and need of complete pumping of system.
Check serviceability of functioning of the vacuum amplifier of brakes, having squeezed out several times a brake pedal for depression dumping. Then, holding a pedal squeezed out, start the engine. At the moment of engine start resistance to squeezing of a pedal should change to (decrease). If it not so, exists probability of "leakages" of vacuum hoses of the block of the amplifier of brakes or actually its malfunction.
Steering wheel and column
Check a steering wheel on existence of cracks or weakening of landing of a nave, spokes or a rim. Shake a wheel here and there, then up-down in relation to a column. Make sure of absence люфта wheels on a column which is the certificate of weakening of a nut of fastening of a wheel or wear шлицов in bulk. Continue to shake a wheel as it is described above, but add still easy rotation it to the right-to the left. Make sure of absence excessive люфта a wheel speaking about excessive wear of the top basic bearing of a shaft, the kardanny hinge (ов) or the flexible coupling.
Windscreen and rear-view mirrors
On a windscreen there should not be cracks and the other damages, capable is appreciable to limit sector of the review of the driver, or screen wipers stirring to work. Existence of the small it is erose, the stones left at blows it is admissible. Any stickers and pendant souvenirs also should not limit the review of the driver.
Rear-view mirrors should be reliably fixed, are not damaged and should give in to adjustment. The door mirror from the passenger party of the car is not subject to an ekzamenovka under condition of serviceability and the existence of possibility of using by a rear-view mirror fixed from the interior of a windscreen.
Seats and seat belts
Clasp and unbutton each of belts, checking serviceability of functioning of mechanisms of locks (both on a zashchelkivaniye, and on opening) and their reliability. If belts of inertial type are established check serviceability of functioning of returnable devices.
Check reliability of fastening of belts to elements of a body and a condition of their basic knots access to which is possible without removal of panels of an upholstery. Existence of signs of strong corrosion or deformation of bearing elements of a body in radius of a support of a belt also is inadmissible. Fastenings of seat belts some of knots are inaccessible and at all are not subject to external survey from car salon, in this case check of their condition should be made late at bottom survey. If any of parts of the mechanism of a belt are fixed directly on a forward seat, support of a seat should be reliably screwed on a floor, and their condition is subjected to the same check, as described above for support of belts.
Forward seats also should be reliably fixed and should not allow spontaneous change of the situation. Backs should be fixed reliably in vertical situation.
Forward doors should open and be closed from within the car and it is reliable to be fixed in a closed position.
Include "ignition" and involve a horn. The horn should publish the pure sound which is well heard by other participants of traffic. Application of gongs, sirens or 2-tone horns established as additional accessories independently is inadmissible.
Check functioning of washers and windscreen cleaners. Washers should give a stream of liquid of an adequate pressure and an expense, and their nozzles are adjusted so that streams got to the upper edge of a windscreen.
Involve at the same time with washers screen wipers and make sure that brushes qualitatively wipe a windscreen in all range of the course. On glass should not remain потеков and the strips of the smeared road film limiting the review of the driver as in rectilinear, and peripheral sectors of a field of vision. Otherwise replace brushes.
Squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake at included "ignition" and ask the assistant to check functioning of stoplights. When squeezing pedal stoplights should light up, and at an otpuskaniye - to die away. If one of stoplights does not burn only, a cause of failure most likely is peregorany lamps or bad electric contact on the boss of a lamp (or near it). If refusal of both stoplights takes place, it is necessary to check their safety lock and the switch. It is not necessary to exclude completely also probability of a simultaneous peregoraniye of both lamps. Refusal of lamps of stoplights of switching off at an otpuskaniye of a pedal of a brake is the testimony of malfunction of the switch.
The checks made on the car which was on the earth
Registration plates and identification numbers of the car
Forward and back registration plates should be in a satisfactory condition, to be reliably attached and easy to be read.
The identification number of the car (VIN) located on шильде under a cowl should be legible.
Include marker lights and make sure that lit up both forward, and back dimensions, and also lamps of illumination of registration plate. Lenses and reflectors should be pure, intact and are reliably fixed. Integrity of lenses has special value in back lamps where this world of damaged fire can be confused by other participants of traffic with a signal of inclusion of a backing. Pollution of lenses causes appreciable decrease in intensity of light let out by a lamp.
Include head headlights and make sure that blocks both near, and a driving beam function normally and with intensity identical to both headlights. Decrease in intensity of a luminescence of any of head headlights is usually connected with violation of quality of electric contacts or strong corrosion of an internal reflector. Check lenses of head headlights on existence of cracks and the stones left as a result of blows it is erose. Such defects are inadmissible, however usually qualification of degree of their gravity is a subjective factor. Remember that all lighting devices should work smoothly at the first switching of switches. Postukivaniye on the block of the lighting device for the purpose of its inclusion is inadmissible action.
Head headlights should not only to be adjusted so that not to stick together other participants of traffic in a mode of a passing beam, but also to provide adequate illumination of a road cloth in front of the car. Check of adjustment of the direction of head headlights make by means of the special optical equipment therefore, in a case absence of confidence of its correctness it is necessary to address beforehand to experts for carrying out check and correction of provision of headlights.
Having included "ignition", check functioning of indexes of turns. Make sure that both forward, and back from them radiate yellow light and about one-two times a second blink with frequency. Besides, the obligatory requirement is serviceability of indicators of inclusion of indexes of turns on an instrument guard. Inclusion of marker lights and stoplights should not influence functioning of indexes of turns - if it not so, the reason is usually covered in bad quality of grounding in blocks of the back combined lamps. Similarly make sure of serviceability of functioning of the alarm system which should act both at included, and at switched-off "ignition". Check a condition of lenses (see above).
Check functioning of fog lights (ы). Obligatory check usually concerns only established outside of the fog light entering into a standard complete set and located from one of the parties of the car. The headlight should be reliably fixed and should make a bright, ostronapravlenny ray of light of red color. The control lamp on an instrument guard (or in the switch) also should function.
From an impellent compartment check brake tubes on existence of signs of leaks, traces of corrosion, unreliability of fastening, protertost and other damages. Check the main brake cylinder and the block of the vacuum amplifier of brakes on existence of signs of leaks, reliability of fastening and signs of excessive corrosion as support of components, and elements of a body surrounding them. The tank of the main brake cylinder should be reliably fixed; fir-trees it is made of a translucent material, liquid level should be in it between the top and bottom marks in walls.
Turn a steering wheel so that the flexible hose of the right forward brake mechanism could be examined. Carefully check a hose on existence of cracks and signs of aging of rubber. Defects most easier come to light when bending hose half-and-half and existence them is almost inevitable on sites where the hose is connected to unions. Turn a steering wheel against the stop to the left, then - to the right and make sure that the hose does not adjoin to a wheel disk, the tire or any of moving components of a suspension bracket or a steering. Having asked the assistant to squeeze out strongly a brake pedal, check a hose on existence of swellings and signs of leakages of liquid under pressure. Repeat checks for a hose of the left brake mechanism. In case of detection of defects make necessary replacements.
Check tubes and hoses of brake lines on existence of signs of damages and material aging.
Steering mechanism and suspension bracket
Ask the assistant slightly повращать a steering wheel to the right-to the left in a range till the moments of the beginning of transfer of rotation to operated wheels. Try to estimate thus size of a free wheeling of a steering wheel till the beginning of operation of the steering mechanism. The size of it люфта gives information on degree of wear of hinges of a steering column, wear and reliability of fastening of the coupling of connection of a column with the steering mechanism or unreliability of fastening, wear or violation of adjustment of actually steering mechanism. The free wheeling of a steering wheel should not exceed 2.5 see.
Ask the assistant strongly повращать a steering wheel in both directions in a range prior to the beginning of turn of operated wheels. Thus watch closely behavior of hinges, drafts and other elements of a steering drive and knots of their fastening. The components showing signs of wear, damage, deformation or unreliability of fastening should be repaired or replaced.
If the car is equipped with system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel, check also reliability of fastening of the pump of system and a condition and correctness of a tension of its driving belt. The system should function and not show regularly signs of leakages of hydraulic liquid or damage of hoses. Additional checks can be made later when the car will be lifted over the earth and access under it considerably will become simpler.
Make sure of flatness of landing of the car and correctness of height of a road gleam. Make sure that there is a sufficient gap between components of a suspension bracket and buffers of a course of the compression, a guaranteeing full speed of a suspension bracket.
Press serially each of car corners, sharply then releasing it. If the shock-absorber as it should be, a corner has to rise, and then return to normal situation. If the car corner after an otpuskaniye continues to be shaken up-down, the shock-absorber lost the dempfiruyushchy properties.
System of production of the fulfilled gases
Start the engine and, having asked the assistant to press to a cut of an exhaust pipe a rags lump, check all system on existence of signs of the leaks which are showing in the form of rhythmically pulsing streams of a smoke or the hissing sound, proceeding directly from a leak source. Check overall performance of the exhaust silencer, having made sure that level of the sound published at operation of the engine corresponds expected for the car of this type. In case the system generally is in a satisfactory condition, insignificant local leaks can be eliminated by means of a patent special remnabor.
The checks made on the car, lifted over the earth, at freely rotating wheels
To Poddomkratta the car, having reliably fixed it on the props got under points bearing loading of a frame of the car. Establish props so that they did not make contact with suspension bracket components (including at a povorachivaniye of forward wheels). Make sure that all wheels do not concern the earth, and operated are capable to turn from an emphasis against the stop.
Check a condition of rubber protective covers of a steering rack. Make sure that on them there are no cuts, signs of leaks and unreliability of fastening of bandages. If management is equipped with hydrostrengthening system, check its rubber hydraulic hoses, tubes and knots of their joining on existence of signs of aging of a material, leaks, protertost and other damages. Attentively see all components of a steering on existence of signs of jamming or too hard course, loss шплинтов and other lock adaptations, and also traces of excessive corrosion of elements of a body in radius of 30 cm round knots of fastening of any of components.
Ask the assistant to turn a steering wheel against the stop at first on the left, then to the right. Make sure that thus steering components (columns, the mechanism and a drive) move smoothly and freely and that any of them (including disks and tires of wheels) does not make contact with hoses or tubes of brake system or any elements of a body of the car.
Forward and back suspension brackets and bearings of wheels
Since right forward, serially inspect a condition of bearings of wheels, spherical support of a suspension bracket, rotary knots and fixture of components of a suspension bracket. For this purpose undertake a wheel in points on 3 both at 9 o'clock and strongly pull it. Presence of any люфта in the transferred knots is inadmissible. Check cases of rubber and metal plugs of components of a suspension bracket on existence of signs of aging or material damage, and components on existence of bends, deformations and signs of excessive corrosion. Check presence of all шплинтов, lock washers or other kontryashchy equipment of fixture of components of a suspension bracket. Make sure of lack of traces of strong corrosion of elements of a body in radius of 30 cm round points of fastening of components.
Existence of any excessive люфта can be established by an introduction way between a support of a component and its body of mount or a big screw-driver and their use as the lever. Whether thus it is possible to establish is the weak point reason wear of the axial plug, a fixing bolt or actually a time (often there are developed to an oval form boltovy openings).
Now undertake a wheel in points on 12 and at 6 o'clock and repeat the check described above. Povrashchayte a wheel, whether checking there are no zakusyvaniye points in its bearing.
Repeat check for the second forward wheel, and then for both back.
Springs and shock-absorbers
Check assemblies of racks on existence of signs of leakages of liquid, corrosion, deep cavities of rods of pistons or damages of casings. Besides, make sure of reliability of fixture of racks.
Make sure that end faces of screw springs correctly are planted in the saddles, and the prutok of a body of a spring is not damaged by corrosion, not broken off and has no cracks or other defects.
Check reliability of fastening of basic knots, existence of signs of excessive wear, corrosion, cracks, deformations, and other damages of components and their plugs.
Check shock-absorbers on existence of signs of serious leaks (the insignificant socheniye of liquid is the normal phenomenon for shock-absorbers some of types). Check fixture and plugs of basic knots on existence of wear and damage of cases of blocks.
Having turned against the stop a steering wheel, serially повращайте each of forward wheels also examine protective covers of hinges of equal angular speeds (CV JOINT) on existence of cracks and other damages. Check also reliability of fastening of covers to the corresponding cases the bandages.
Continuing to rotate a wheel, make sure that the power shaft is not bent and in any other manner is not damaged.
If it is possible, without assorting mechanisms, check a condition of brake shoes and disks. Make sure that the material of frictional slips is not worn-out excessively and that on surfaces of disks there are no cracks, cavities, furrows and other signs of excessive wear.
Attentively check a condition of rigid brake tubes under the bottom of the car and flexible hoses of back brake mechanisms. Existence of traces of excessive corrosion, protertost, unreliability of fastening of shtutserny connections of tubes, and also cracks, signs of aging of a material, leaks and swellings under the pressure of flexible hoses is inadmissible.
Check supports and boards of brake mechanisms on existence of signs of leakages of the brake liquid speaking about violation of quality of hydraulic consolidations of the corresponding components.
Slowly rotating serially each of wheels, ask the assistant to squeeze out a foot brake, and then to release it. Make sure thus of serviceability of functioning of each of brake mechanisms, and also that the wheel rotates freely at an otpuskaniye of a pedal of a brake. To check efficiency of operation of brake mechanisms without use of the special equipment it is not obviously possible, however trial runs (in the presence of the corresponding road and weather conditions) are capable to reveal effect of withdrawal of the car aside at rectilinear movement.
Check the mechanism of a drive of the parking brake on an istrepyvaniye and break of cables, excessive wear and unreliability of fastening of drafts. Having asked the assistant to cock, and then to release the parking brake, make sure of reliability of operation and an otpuskaniye of brake mechanisms of each of back wheels of the car.
Power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
Check a condition of a fuel tank, tubes, hoses and shtutserny connections (including connections on the preliminary pump, the filter and TNVD).
All components should be reliably fixed, and not have signs of leaks. The cover of a fuel tank should be closed reliably to correspond on type shown by manufacturers of the car to requirements.
Check release system on all length on existence of damages of support and подвесов, reliability of fastening of collars of butt connections of sections and corrosion traces.
Wheels and tires
Attentively look serially tires of all wheels as with external, and from the inside, and also on all surface of a protector. Existence of cuts, cracks, swellings, consolidations, protector stratifications, and also exposures of a cord and a tire framework owing to wear or damages is inadmissible. Make sure of density of landing of a board of the tire on a rim of a disk of a wheel. Check landing and a condition of the valve of a rating of the tire (nipple). Povrashchayte of a wheel, checking disks on existence of signs of deformations, in particular on a rim.
Make sure that the tires of the correct size corresponding on a standard size to make of the car are established. Installation on one axis of tires of different type or is the size inadmissible. Use at normal operation of the car of spare tires of special (compact) type is inadmissible. Besides, tires should be pumped up with demanded pressure.
By means of the special adaptation measure depth of a pattern of a protector of the tire. By the safety rules of traffic accepted now the pattern should be looked through accurately on all area of a protector and have depth not less than 1.6 mm at least on three quarters of width of a protector. A certain wear of a protector on external and internal edges is admissible, however it should have a form of an equal continuous ring and a protector pattern on a worn-out site should be looked through also. Any excessive wear from listed can appear a sign of violation of adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels which should be checked above before tires will finally fail. For more detailed information on typical wear of protectors and adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels address to the corresponding Heads of the Management.
Check all bearing elements of a body and a car frame on sites subject to loads of existence of signs of corrosion. Loaded and bearing all profile elements of a frame, thresholds, cross-section beams, racks of a body, a support and fixture of elements of a suspension bracket and a steering, components of brake system and seat belts are considered. The corrosion essentially reducing thickness of metal of bearing sites of a body of the car and causing their easing, is inadmissible. In this case the car should be subjected to body repair.
Check of toxicity of the fulfilled gases
Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and make sure of implementation of preliminary requirements to carrying out check of adjustment of turns of idling (i.e. that TNVD normally functions, and the element of the air filter is in a satisfactory condition).
Before the beginning of measurements lift frequency of rotation of the engine to value approximately in 2500 rpm and hold it at this level about 20 seconds. Again dump turns to single and get accustomed to a smoke leaving an exhaust pipe of the car. If turns of idling are obviously exceeded, or in case of emission from system of release of clearly appreciable dark blue or black smoke during time more than in 5 seconds, it is necessary to subject the car to repair. The dark blue smoke is a sign of burning out of impellent oil (wear of maslootrazhatelny caps of cores of the valves, directing plugs of valves, piston rings or a mirror of cylinders) while black it is possible to consider as the certificate of incomplete combustion of fuel (pollution of an element of the air filter or other problems in work of system of injection of fuel, bad work of nozzles).
If turns of idling and an external condition of an exhaust are in norm, it is necessary to measure by means of the analyzer of the fulfilled gases the contents in an exhaust of hydrocarbonic connections. Further it is supposed that such analyzer can be to hire or is borrowed - to get it for the amateur mechanic irrationally. Alternatively it is necessary to address for carrying out this check on car repair shop.
The contents in an exhaust of hydrocarbons should not exceed 1200 particles on one million. If the car does not pass this check on single turns, repeat it at frequency of rotation of the engine in 2000 rpm; if now the content of hydrocarbons gets to norm, it is possible to consider check successfully passable.
The excessive content in the fulfilled gases of hydrocarbonic connections can be a sign of burning out of oil, however with not smaller degree of probability can be caused as well by incomplete combustion of fuel. It is possible to include in number of the possible reasons:
а) Violation of installation of a corner of an advancing of injection of fuel.
b) Wrong gap of valves.
c) Low kompressionny pressure in cylinders.
Remember also that the excessive content of hydrocarbons in the fulfilled gases can be a consequence of violation of functioning of the catalytic converter (if that enters into a car complete set).